Using heat to evaporate water involves large amounts of energy 1. This is amplified by inefficiencies in heating process technology, such as steam production.
A range of methods are available which provide heat for evaporation much more efficiently such as:
- depressurisation using waste heat
- ambient temperature air or water
Where heat is used, efficient heat recovery (including the latent heat of water vapour) is critical. Heat pumps can efficiently recover heat for use in other processes.